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Mount Rinjani National Park

Gunung Rinjani National Park represents a range of Nusa Tenggaras ecosystem types, from sub-montane rain forest to montane forest and savanna.

The mighty Rinjani mountain of Gunung Rinjani is a massive volcano which towers over the island of Lombok. A climb to the top is one of the most exhilarating experiences you can have in Indonesia. At 3,726 meters tall, Gunung Rinjani is the second highest mountain in Indonesia. The climb to the top may not be easy but it’s worth it, and is widely regarded as one of the best views in the country.

Part of the famous ‘ring of fire’ this mountain also holds spiritual significance for the local people. It’s thought that the name Rinjani comes from an old Javanese term for ‘God’.

Around the slopes of Rinjani there are lush forests sprinkled with waterfalls and surrounded by stunning scenery.

Within the mountain is a crescent shaped lake, the breathtaking Segara Anak which is about 6km across at its widest point. This lake of sulfur is located 600 meters below the crater rim. Rising from the waters of this lake is a new volcano, Mt. Baru, which is a result of a series of eruptions during the 1990’s. Segara Anak is a spiritual place. The Balinese come here each year and perform a ceremony called pekelan where jewelry is placed in the lake as an offering to the mountain spirit. The Wetu Telu people also regard the lake as holy and come here to pray on full moon nights.

Mt Rinjani lies within the Gunung Rinjani National Park. The park covers 41,330 hectares and sits inside a major bio-geographical transition zone (Wallacea). This is where the tropical flora and fauna of South East Asia meets that of Australasia. This National Park was established in 1997 and is one of over 40 throughout Indonesia.

For visitors, the three-day Rinjani trek route from Senaru to the crater rim, down to the Crater Lake then on to Sembalun Lawang, is considered one of the best treks in South East Asia. More adventurous trekkers may want to head all the way to the summit of the volcano. This is best reached from Sembalun Lawang and takes four days, finishing up in Senaru.

To ensure that local communities benefit from tourism revenue, the Rinjani Trek is managed by a partnership of National Park officials, the public and private sectors of the Lombok tourism industry and community representatives. Community run cooperatives coordinate the Trek at the Rinjani Trek Center (RTC) in Senaru and the Rinjani Information Center (RIC) in Sembalun Lawang.

Revenue from tourism activities and entry fees is used for conservation, management and assisting the National Park with maintenance of the Rinjani Trek, thus ensuring its sustainability. This management model is unique in Indonesia and considered an example of best practice of ecotourism in Indonesia.

The plant potential in this Park area includes jelutung (Laportea stimulans), dedurenan (Aglaia argentea), bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), beringin (Ficus benjamina), jambu-jambuan (Syzygium sp.), keruing (Dipterocarpus hasseltii), rerau (D. imbricatus), lumut jenggot (Usnea sp.), cemara gunung (Casuarina tripolia and C. equisetifolia), edelweiss flowers (Anaphalis javanica), and endemic species of orchid such as Perisstylus rintjaniensis and P. lombokensis.

There is one endemic species of civet in the Park, namely the musang rinjani (Paradoxurus hemaproditus rinjanicus). Also to be found in the park are barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak nainggolani), ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus kohlbruggei), pangolin (Manis javanica), southeast Asian porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), Timor helmeted friarbird (Philemon buceroides neglectus), crested hawk eagle (Spizaetus cirrhatus floris), lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea occidentalis), Lombok honeyeater (Lichmera lombokia lombokia), dark-backed imperial pigeon (Ducula lacernulata sasakensis), black-naped oriole (Oriolus chinensis broderipii), and several species of reptile.

Mt. Rinjani, at 3,726 m asl., is the third highest mountain in Indonesia. In a valley high up on the western part of Mt. Rinjani lies Segara Anak Lake (2,208 m asl.) whose sulphurous-smelling water has different temperatures from one part of the Lake to another, ranging from cool, through warm, to very hot. A new volcano is emerging from the centre of this Lake, and it is still active and growing.

Particularly with the coming of the rice-planting season, the communities in the vicinity quite often hold ritual ceremonies on Mt. Rinjani and at Segara Anak Lake. One involves releasing small artificial fish made of very thin gold into the Lake.

The Concepts of the Rinjani Trek Management Board
The Rinjani Trek is managed by a unique partnership of National Park, tourism industry and the local community. Activities focus in the Community – run cooperatives at Rinjani Trek Centre ( RTC ) in Senaru and the Rinjani Information Centre ( RIC ) in Sembalun Lawang. Under the guidance of the Rinjani Trek Management Board ( RTMB ), each are run by a stakeholders’ committee who look after roster systems for guides and porters, village tours, trek trail maintenance, and handicraft sales. Revenue from tourism activities and entry fees is used for conservation, training and management of the Rinjani Trek, thus ensuring sustainability.

Conceptually, the project started with three stakeholder circles labeled “Park Management”, “Community Development” and “Tourism”. Whit Project assistance, the Park set out to engage with the stakeholder groups in each of the circles, independently at first and then, as the groups got used to deal with each other, increasingly together. This approach recognized that it takes time for the multi-skilled “cross-over” people that ecotourism requires (people who can operate in between the circles) to emerge.

Best time to trek in Rinjani : April to November

Designated : Minister of Forestry, SK.No.280/Kpts-II/97,
a total area of 41,330 hectares
Location : Regencies; West Lombok, Central Lombok and
East Lombok, Province of West Nusa Tenggara

Temperature 23° – 30° C
Rainfall 2,000 mm/year (on average)
Altitude 550 – 3,726 m asl.
Geographical location 116°18′ – 116°32′ E; 8°18′ – 8°33′ S

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